INSCYD coach showing cycling PPD (power performance decoder) results

INSCYD is the most advanced software tool to analyze physiological performance in athletes. INSCYD enables coaches to create highly individual and laser focused training programs. INSCYD gives you access to metrics that otherwise available only elite trainers and high-end institutes – such as the only tool to provide maximum glycolytic power (VLamax) for any kind of  sport.

INSCYD is not a training platform where a coach creates training programs or communicates to the athlete what the athlete should do. INSCYD is the platform where the coach discovers what the athlete should focus on in training.

Since there is no comparison in the world of sports performance – especially when it comes to precision, reliability and wealth of data provided – we are comfortable in saying INSCYD is the world’s most advanced software for physiological performance analysis.

"Thanks to INSCYD, my trainer and I always know where I currently stand and where I can improve my performance."
Wout van Aert
Professional Cyclist


With INSCYD, you are able to assess and track all the following metrics for performance assessment:

VO2max - Maximum Aerobic Power

This is a marker of the ability to produce power aerobically. In the aerobic metabolism the rate of energy production (= power) is proportional to the rate of oxygen uptake. Therefore, the maximum oxygen uptake rate (VO2max) is a valid marker for the aerobic power.


VLamax - Maximum Glycolytic Power

This is a marker of the ability to produce power anaerobic (without oxygen). In the glycolytic metabolism the rate of energy production (= power) is proportional to the rate of lactate production. Therefore, the maximum lactate production rate (VLamax) is a valid marker for the glycolytic power.

"I use VLamax as the main parameter to prepare the training.“
Dan Lorang
Coach of Jan Frodeno, Anne Haug & Team BORA-hansgrohe

INSCYD provides you with the only scientifically validated VLamax. This metric is important when you care about short events which last 10s to only a few minutes or decisive race events that depend on anaerobic energy supply, like accelerations and sprints. At the same time, it is also crucial in long endurance events such as Ironman triathlons and marathons, since it influences the carbohydrate and fat combustion.

Anaerobic Threshold aka MLSS

A metric that became increasingly popular by the proxy FTP (Functional Threshold Power). At the maximum lactate steady state intensity – power and/or speed – there is no lactate accumulation but the metabolism is saturated with lactate/pyruvate as a fuel. This becomes interesting only when you know how that number is composed. INSCYD provides you both the intensity and the aerobic and anaerobic contribution to that intensity.

INSCYD metabolic fingerprint: metrics
Map the INSCYD metrics in your metabolic fingerprint to get a good overview.

Fat Combustion

How much fat does an athlete burn at any given intensity? And at which intensity does the athlete burn the maximal amount of fat – also known as FatMax? INSCYD fat combustion rates give you the answers!

Carbohydrate Combustion

How many carbohydrates does an athlete burn at any given intensity? And at which intensity does the athlete burn more carbs than he/she can take in via the intestines – also known as CarbMax? INSCYD carbohydrate combustion rates gives you the answers! This enables you to create effective fueling plans for training & racing.


Lactate Recovery and Lactate Accumulation

With these two metrics you can finally understand how fast lactate accumulates above anaerobic threshold and how fast lactate decreases below anaerobic threshold. This enables you to:

  • Pick the intensity at which an athlete recovers fastest from a high intensity effort
  • Set up highly individual interval training workouts with optimal work-to-rest ratios in both intensity and duration
  • Create the fastest pacing strategy by making optimal use of the athletes’ capabilities
INSCYD Lactate accumulation and recovery graph
How fast lactate decreases below anaerobic threshold (1) and how fast lactate accumulates above anaerobic threshold (3)


The less energy an athlete needs for a given intensity, the faster he/she can be. The economy tells you what the energy cost is of running, swimming, skating and many other sports. This metric is widely used by Stanford University, the German Swimming Federation and many others.


Aerobic vs. Anaerobic energy contribution and Energy sources

You may have two athletes performing at the same exercise intensity, but that does not mean that their energy contribution from aerobic and anaerobic energy systems is equal. With these two metrics you can see how much energy is coming from the aerobic vs anaerobic energy system and how much fat vs carbohydrate is utilized.

With INSCYD you can look at the actual energy contribution, coming from the aerobic system (blue), glycolytic system (green), or from creatine phosphate (red).

How body composition affects performance

VO2max is often expressed in milliliter per kilogram bodyweight and VLamax is expressed in mmol per liter dilution space. As a result, body composition affects both parameters. With INSCYD, you learn how fat and lean muscle mass affects lactate values and how male and female body composition differ from one another. This improves understanding of how changes in body composition – e.g., after a diet to reduce body fat – change lactate values and performance.



Glycolytic Utilization

Through this metric you can see how much of the max glycolytic power the athlete can actually use. For example: their maximum glycolytic power output is 1,000W, but that doesn’t mean they’re able to use all of that in a particular race. They may be able to use only 600-700W maximum in a certain  -race specific effort. The reasons for a non maximum utilization are lack of activation, for example after a period of long low intensity training, or deficit in buffering capacity.



Through its algorithm and cutting-edge digitalization development, INSCYD obtains all those metrics during a short performance test. That does not only save a lot of equipment costs, it’s also a huge time saver when comparing to a conventional lab or performance test, where you would have to carry out multiple tests to get the same amount of data: a short ramp test for the VO2max, a long step test for the fat and carbohydrate utilization, a lactate test for the anaerobic threshold, a sprint test for the anaerobic or glycolytic power… and so on. This would take several days in a lab and you would still lack information like the aerobic and anaerobic contribution that INSCYD provides. Besides that, it is not possible to perform all those tests in real life conditions, as you can with INSCYD.

With INSCYD, our algorithms know the physiological connections between the metrics, which enables us to calculate all the metrics using significant less data. In less than one hour, you can have all of the above lab tests done and dusted.


We can either provide you with a suggested protocol on how to perform the test as quick and accurate as possible, or we can create a protocol together which suits your needs best. The test can take place in the field or in the lab. It’s up to you whether you use data from lactate samples, VO2 data, body composition information, power files only (cycling) or GPS files only (running). Of course you can also combine the data.

The power/GPS only test is better known as the Power-Performance Decoder, which enables coaches to test their athlete remotely: no lactate measurements, no spiroergometry, no loss of quality!

Running INSCYD coach shows results Power Performance Decoder that only uses GPS data
Although you can use lactate measurements and spiroergometry, a simple GPS watch (running) or power meter (cycling) is everything you need.

However, you can also perform a testing protocol that you (already) use/prefer and upload it on INSCYD (even the conventional lactate profiling for example). In other words, even if you feed the algorithm with conventional lab test results, it will give you more information on you athletes’ physiology than the original test.

The fact that any protocol will work enables you to:

  • Test with your own equipment (the same equipment as you use during training and racing)
  • Test where it matters the most: in the lab, outdoors, on race courses, on running tracks, in the pool, you name it!

    Regardless off the performance output that you are working on (a marathon, a XC Skiing race, Strava KOMs, a higher FTP or a 200m swimming race), with INSCYD you can truly understand how these performances are created and composed. By understanding what is needed for your goal, it becomes easier to understand what needs to be improved during training, to increase performance output. INSCYD is the only tool that can give you this in-depth understanding of those performances and training.


    “The INSCYD test opened my mind to an entirely new world of training and racing.”
    Lionel Sanders
    Professional IRONMAN triathlete


    INSCYD goes even one step further. With INSCYD you can project how much the actual improvement for a specific event is (a marathon race, a XC skiing event, etc.), if you improve your athletes’ VO2max, VLamax, economy and/or body composition. By knowing the effect of an improved metric on performance outcome, you discover what you should be focusing on. That means no more guesswork!


    INSCYD is NOT based on something we came up with through statistical analysis and it’s NOT based on the extrapolation of what has worked for other people in the past through correlation.

    Our software is based on known physiological mechanisms derived from more than 150 peer reviewed scientific papers and studies.

    On top of that, the software relies on the data coming from your tests. If the data is clean and results come from a well-performed test, INSCYD will be spot on. If the tests are not performed well – for instance because the power meter or lactate analyzer is off – the software will alert you. This will make your test report even more reliable.

    Last but not least, INSCYD has a self-auditing mechanism build in. That means that it will cross validate the test results as an internal double check, to see whether there are no outliers. Here’s an example of a cross validation in the Power-Performance Decoder:

    Cross validation VLamax, VO2max, anaerobic threshold
    INSCYD cross validates its own results to make sure you have accurate outcomes

    Now that we introduced ourselves, we are looking forward to hearing more about you. Get in touch and ask us any question via the buttons below!